THE STATE AND THE MEDIA
PRIVATISATION, DEREGULATION: age that goes back to 1980s and the ideology comes from markets regarded as the best to be sold in terms of corporation (broadcasting corporation). State control of media has incredibly fallen into scepticism. Nationalisation of the cultural industry.
Labor government gained the idea of deregulation in a proper way. The state should let the market hit the best.
Since 1960s arguments on privatisation rose.
ABC as public broadcaster not vehicle of Government propaganda; as a public broadcaster it is required to carry certain things. Nonetheless ABC has been charged of bias many times. It is supposed to be left wing lined, indeed.
Public broadcasting vs advertisements. Advertisements= private corporations which control broadcasting.
Public broadcasting does not necessary mean independent broadcasting.
Denis Potter-The singing detective
Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) dependent upon corporate support and a diffuse broadcasting service it is not the centerpiece of national broadcasting in the way that the BBC and other state-owned station (to a lesser extent the ABC) can be. It accords to mainstream values.
FCC deregulations: few changes. Deregulation means that channel broadcast similar stuffs (mainstream stuffs). Media concentration and consolidation produce commercialized products. FCC allowed media consolidation but also it reduced the role of independence in television.
Media consolidation tends towards standardization, removal of diversity and choice.
Independent Media Inquiry, Ray Finkelstein and most importantly Convergence Review Committee, final report handed to Government on March 30, 2012. (on moodle)
Australian regulatory bodies:
– Australian Press-Council (Self-regulatory)
– Australian Communication and Media Authority (ACMA)
Australian Convergence Review
Regulation vs minimum deregulation
Regulation is required when media concentration hinders the free flow of information;
media content standards are violated; australian and local content regulations as well.
What is reported in papers and on television is not simply a product either of ‘events in the world’ or of the perceptions and prejudices of individual journalists. Although events certainly play their part, equally important are the constraints and conditions under which journalism is practised.
How does the State the way media report politics? There are different forms of state control:
1. CENSORSHIP: is the most obvious form of state control. It entails the banning of cultural expressions partially or totally. In Afghanista, e.g. the taliban regime banned television, cinema and music. Nonetheless, censorship can assume the form of a self-censorship that is a strict code of rules mass media are required to respect and conform their works to.
Generally speaking, there are systems in which censorship is uncovered and instituzionalized and other systems in which it is more covered and implicit.
2. SECRECY: rather than censor what threatens to become public, liberal states prefer to keep things secret, so that the issue of a ban never arises. If journalists know nothing, there is not the necessity of apply censorship on them. All states, indeed, have secrecy system which are regulated by law to restrict the flow of information.
3. PROPAGANDA: denying access to specific information is useful to states to manage media coverage, but sometimes they need also to control the way in which media cover certain information. The selected release of information, indeed, is intended to preserve and promote the power of the government. The government and political parties’ use of information as an instrument to influence the audience and preserve the power, is the so said ‘propaganda’.
4. REGULATION: whilst censorship, secrecy and propaganda represent the capacity of state to supply the flow of information and manage it, regulation entails the capacity of the state to regulate a complex media system and guarantee certain rights and principles that are necessary to lead and endorse the political environment and democracy at large. Regulate, indeed, means making laws to regulate both the forms of communication and the content of information. Common laws are, for example, copyrights and libel, which help to construct the resources with which the mass media deal.